Robert W. Holley, the Great American Nobel Prized Biochemist.

Robert W. Holley, the Great American Nobel Prized Biochemist.

Robert w. Holley was born in Urbana, Illinois, on January 28; 1922. Holley was at the number fourth among his brother and sisters. His father, Charles, and mother, Viola Holley bother were educators. He attended public schools in Illinois, California and Idaho, and graduated from Urbana High School in 1938.He got his B. A degree in chemistry from the University of Illinois in 1942. After this he worked at Cornell University, where he got the PhD degree in Organic Chemistry, with Professor Alfred T. Blomquist was awarded in 1927. He also interrupted during the Worlds War II. He spent two years, 1944-1946, with Professors Vincent du Vigneaud at Cornell University Medical College, where he participated in the first chemical synthesis of penicillin.

After completing the PhD. Holley spent two years from 1947-1948 as an American Chemical Society Postdoctoral and Fellow with Professor Carl M. Stevens at Washington State University. Latter on he returned to Cornell U University as a professor of Organic Chemistry at the Geneva Experiment Station in 1948. He was Associate Professor there from 1950-1957. During the   year, 19055-1958, Holley was a Guggenheim Memorial Fellow in the division of Biology at the California Institute of Technology.  He returned to Ithaca, New York, in 1958 as a Research Chemical at the U.S Plant, Soil and Nutrition laboratory (a U.S Department of Agriculture Laboratory on the Cornell University Campus. He stayed there as a Professor of Biochemistry in 1962. Latter on he rejoined the faculty of Cornell University full it me in 1964 as a Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and was the Chairman of the Department from1965 to 1966.  Holley spent one year 1966-1967 at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and the scrip as Clinic and research Foundation in La Jolly, California as a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow. In 1068, though  maintaining an affiliation with Cornell University, Holley joined the permanent staff of the Salk Institute, where he was a Resident Fellow and an American Cancer Society  Professor of  Molecular Biology. He is also an Adjunct Professor at the University of California at San Diego.

Holley’s training as a chemical did not alter his basic interests in living things. Holley’s choice of research has been increased through this interest, which began with the Organic Chemistry of natural products there followed as gradual drift toward more Biological Subjects, with the work of Amino Acids and Peptides. And eventually work on the biosynthesis of proteins. Latter on he discovered the almandine transfer of RNA. He spent ten years with this RNA. Concentrating first on the isolation of  the RNA, and then  working  on the determination of the structure of the RNA.  With the best efforts the nucleotide sequence was completed at the end of 1964.  Holley was awarded with the “Nobel Prize” due to this work.

Holley was also the member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, The American Society of Biological Chemists and the American Chemical Society. Holley received the Albert Award in 1965 in Basic Medical Research, the Distinguished Service Award from the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1965 and the U.S. Steel Foundation Award in Molecular Biology of the National Academy of Sciences in 1967.  Holley Married with and D Work in 1945. The Couple had only one son, Fredrick. He died on February 11, 1993.

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